lunes, 30 de noviembre de 2009

About our Project!

Our project "Zero Garbage", propose a solution for the terrible problem that the humanity have with their waste. There is plenty of garbage on this planet; in fact there is so much garbage that many developed countries are trying to dump their garbage on the lands of lesser developed countries, at a fee of course. But does dumping garbage on other places solve the problem? On the contrary it spreads pollutions and diseases. In fact it is more dangerous to dump garbage in the less developed countries.

When we throw our garbage away, the garbage goes to landfills. Landfills are those big hills that you go by on an expressway that stink. They are full of garbage. The garbage is then sometimes burned. This sends an enormous amount of greenhouse gasses into the air and makes global warming worse.

A great and futurist solution to this problem is using processes named TDP. Implementing this process we can convert almost anything waste into energy in form on oil and gas.

I collaborated in my project searching the information recourses’, like an "Investigator".
You can get more information about our project at:

sábado, 28 de noviembre de 2009

Scanning and Scrimming Exercises.

Last class I did excercises of Scanning and Skimming reading tecniques, and I got a cerificate by each one.

You can find information and excersises about these reading tecniques at:

lunes, 23 de noviembre de 2009

My TOEFL Results!

Recently I did a practice of the TOEFL examination to measure my english level.
The TOEFL (Test of English as Foreign Language) is the essential exam for entry to universities in the United States. It measures the ability of nonnative speakers of English as it is spoken, written and heard in college and universities settings.

The TOEFL has 4 parts: Reading, listening, structure and writing.

These were my results of my TOEFL practice in each topic:

TOEFL Reading: I got 9/11.

TOEFL Listening: I got 4/10.

TOEFL Structure: I got 15/20

TOEFL Vocabulary: I got 39/50

I am satisfied with my results, because now I know how is my english level and with this information I can improve myself and attack the areas where I am failing.

miércoles, 18 de noviembre de 2009

Today is the Chinita's Day!

A day like this 300 year ago our lady of the Rosary of Chiquinquira came to our land to care and bless us with her love.

An old lady named Maria Cárdenas made a living by washing other people's clothes, a job she did every morning at the shores of the lake. On November 18th 1709 she took a bulk of clothes, and as usual, went to the lake to start washing them. This old lady was at her chores when she saw a small wooden slab floating towards her. She picked it up thinking that it might be of some use.

When Cárdenas finished her work, she went home carrying the clothes, the wooden slab and a small vase with fresh water. She then placed the board on top of the vase, before noticing a small figure in the board but could not tell what it was. Feeling curious about this, she went directly to see what was happening and found the slab glowing with a bright light to later find the image of the Virgin of Chiquinquirá.

Surprised and filled with a strong emotion, Cárdenas immediately ran out of her house located on the 2nd avenue, screaming and shouting the words “Miracle! Miracle!” Her neighbors went where the woman was to find out that the apparition of the Virgin Mary was real. From that day on, the faith of the zulians found their Queen in the “Chinita”. As it has been expressed by many people, “She is the way that leads to Jesus”.

Since that day the street where Cárdenas lived was renamed "El Milagro" which means Miracle in Spanish, and to this day it is one of the most important streets in the neighborhood of "El Saladillo" in the city of Maracaibo. To this day the wooden slab with the image on it can still be seen in the Basilica in Maracaibo.

Legend has it that the government decided that the wood with the image belonged in the capital city, Caracas. So they ordered it moved. As the soldiers following the order carried the image away from Maracaibo it got heavier and heavier until finally no one could lift it. They returned it to the Basilica of Maracaibo where it has remained with the belief that no one can remove it.

The people of Maracaibo celebrate the Chinita's fair in November with an all-night party. One of the main city avenues, Bella Vista, is closed for several blocks and the city puts lights along the whole avenue. The lights stay up for months, until after Christmas. There are stages set up, sponsored by the government and businesses around the city. There are firework shows and street vendors, and hundreds of thousands of people line the streets and celebrate all night.

The Chinita’s fair officially begins on October 27th when the Virgin is taken down from the altar in which she rests. She tours all over the Zulia State and returns to the Basilica to start all the religious festivities. Around October 2nd, Bella Vista Avenue sees itself lit up by all the Christmas decorations and the local government promotes a series of public concerts with national and international artists to begin the “real” fair. Crowds of people flock together to the different stages or platforms devised to house such concerts.

Other cultural activities are held during the fair. Expo-Zulia is a temporary marketplace where the zulians show a great deal products that characterize our region. Many merchants, stores, companies and artisans offer their products at reasonably low prices. The Bullfights are also popular and a number of these are held in our bullring. The “Toros coleados” is another event that people don’t usually miss. Many “gaiteros” gather in front of the basilica to sing their best gaitas to please the patron virgin of our people putting an end to the “gaita season”.

lunes, 9 de noviembre de 2009

I visited my classmate's blogs!

I visited the Laura's blog, it has a great appareance and many entries I liked it very much.
I visited the Jaiver's blog it doesn't have many entries but I like it's font, beacuse I enjoy a nice day in the beach very much.

I invite you to visit their blogs at:

martes, 3 de noviembre de 2009

No More Waste, No More Pollution, Plenty of Oil

In an industrial park in Philadelphia sits a new machine that can change almost anything into oil. Really. "This is a solution to three of the biggest problems facing mankind," says Brian Appel, chairman and CEO of Changing World Technologies, the company that built this pilot plant and has just completed its first industrial-size installation in Missouri. "This process can deal with the world's waste. It can supplement our dwindling supplies of oil. And it can slow down global warming." Pardon me, says a reporter, shivering in the frigid dawn, but that sounds too good to be true.

"Everybody says that," says Appel. He is a tall, affable entrepreneur who has assembled a team of scientists, former government leaders, and deep-pocketed investors to develop and sell what he calls the thermal depolymerization process, or TDP. The process is designed to handle almost any waste product imaginable, including turkey offal, tires, plastic bottles, harbor-dredged muck, old computers, municipal garbage, cornstalks, paper-pulp effluent, infectious medical waste, oil-refinery residues, even biological weapons such as anthrax spores. According to Appel, waste goes in one end and comes out the other as three products, all valuable and environmentally benign: high-quality oil, clean-burning gas, and purified minerals that can be used as fuels, fertilizers, or specialty chemicals for manufacturing.

Unlike other solid-to-liquid-fuel processes such as cornstarch into ethanol, this one will accept almost any carbon-based feedstock. If a 175-pound man fell into one end, he would come out the other end as 38 pounds of oil, 7 pounds of gas, and 7 pounds of minerals, as well as 123 pounds of sterilized water. While no one plans to put people into a thermal depolymerization machine, an intimate human creation could become a prime feedstock. "There is no reason why we can't turn sewage, including human excrement, into a glorious oil," says engineer Terry Adams, a project consultant. So the city of Philadelphia is in discussion with Changing World Technologies to begin doing exactly that.

"The potential is unbelievable," says Michael Roberts, a senior chemical engineer for the Gas Technology Institute, an energy research group. "You're not only cleaning up waste; you're talking about distributed generation of oil all over the world."

"This is not an incremental change. This is a big, new step," agrees Alf Andreassen, a venture capitalist with the Paladin Capital Group and a former Bell Laboratories director.

Andreassen and others anticipate that a large chunk of the world's agricultural, industrial, and municipal waste may someday go into thermal depolymerization machines scattered all over the globe. If the process works as well as its creators claim, not only would most toxic waste problems become history, so would imported oil. Just converting all the U.S. agricultural waste into oil and gas would yield the energy equivalent of 4 billion barrels of oil annually. In 2001 the United States imported 4.2 billion barrels of oil. Referring to U.S. dependence on oil from the volatile Middle East, R. James Woolsey, former CIA director and an adviser to Changing World Technologies, says, "This technology offers a beginning of a way away from this."

But first things first. Today, here at the plant at Philadelphia's Naval Business Center, the experimental feedstock is turkey processing-plant waste: feathers, bones, skin, blood, fat, guts. A forklift dumps 1,400 pounds of the nasty stuff into the machine's first stage, a 350-horsepower grinder that masticates it into gray brown slurry. From there it flows into a series of tanks and pipes, which hum and hiss as they heat, digest, and break down the mixture. Two hours later, a white-jacketed technician turns a spigot. Out pours a honey-colored fluid, steaming a bit in the cold warehouse as it fills a glass beaker.

It really is a lovely oil.

"The longest carbon chains are C-18 or so," says Appel, admiring the liquid. "That's a very light oil. It is essentially the same as a mix of half fuel oil, half gasoline."

Private investors, who have chipped in $40 million to develop the process, aren't the only ones who are impressed. The federal government has granted more than $12 million to push the work along. "We will be able to make oil for $8 to $12 a barrel," says Paul Baskis, the inventor of the process. "We are going to be able to switch to a carbohydrate economy."

Making oil and gas from hydrocarbon-based waste is a trick that Earth mastered long ago. Most crude oil comes from one-celled plants and animals that die, settle to ocean floors, decompose, and are mashed by sliding tectonic plates, a process geologists call subduction. Under pressure and heat, the dead creatures' long chains of hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon-bearing molecules, known as polymers, decompose into short-chain petroleum hydrocarbons. However, Earth takes its own sweet time doing this-generally thousands or millions of years-because subterranean heat and pressure changes are chaotic. Thermal depolymerization machines turbocharge the process by precisely raising heat and pressure to levels that break the feedstock's long molecular bonds.

Many scientists have tried to convert organic solids to liquid fuel using waste products before, but their efforts have been notoriously inefficient. "The problem with most of these methods was that they tried to do the transformation in one step-superheat the material to drive off the water and simultaneously break down the molecules," says Appel. That leads to profligate energy use and makes it possible for hazardous substances to pollute the finished product. Very wet Waste -- and much of the world's waste is wet -- is particularly difficult to process efficiently because driving off the water requires so much energy. Usually, the Btu content in the resulting oil or gas barely exceeds the amount needed to make the stuff.

That's the challenge that Baskis, a microbiologist and inventor who lives in Rantoul, Illinois, confronted in the late 1980s. He says he "had a flash" of insight about how to improve the basic ideas behind another inventor's waste-reforming process. "The prototype I saw produced a heavy, burned oil," recalls Baskis. "I drew up an improvement and filed the first patents." He spent the early 1990s wooing investors and, in 1996, met Appel, a former commodities trader. "I saw what this could be and took over the patents," says Appel, who formed a partnership with the Gas Technology Institute and had a demonstration plant up and running by 1999. Thermal depolymerization, Appel says, has proved to be 85 percent energy efficient for complex feedstocks, such as turkey offal: "That means for every 100 Btus in the feedstock, we use only 15 Btus to run the process." He contends the efficiency is even better for relatively dry raw materials, such as plastics.

So how does it work? In the cold Philadelphia warehouse, Appel waves a long arm at the apparatus, which looks surprisingly low tech: a tangle of pressure vessels, pipes, valves, and heat exchangers terminating in storage tanks. It resembles the oil refineries that stretch to the horizon on either side of the New Jersey Turnpike, and in part, that's exactly what it is.

Appel strides to a silver gray pressure tank that is 20 feet long, three feet wide, heavily insulated, and wrapped with electric heating coils. He raps on its side. "The chief difference in our process is that we make water a friend rather than an enemy," he says. "The other processes all tried to drive out water. We drive it in, inside this tank, with heat and pressure. We super-hydrate the material." Thus temperatures and pressures need only be modest, because water helps to convey heat into the feedstock. "We're talking about temperatures of 500 degrees Fahrenheit and pressures of about 600 pounds for most organic material-not at all extreme or energy intensive. And the cooking times are pretty short, usually about 15 minutes."

Once the organic soup is heated and partially depolymerized in the reactor vessel, phase two begins. "We quickly drop the slurry to a lower pressure," says Appel, pointing at a branching series of pipes. The rapid depressurization releases about 90 percent of the slurry's free water. Dehydration via depressurization is far cheaper in terms of energy consumed than is heating and boiling off the water, particularly because no heat is wasted. "We send the flashed-off water back up there," Appel says, pointing to a pipe that leads to the beginning of the process, "to heat the incoming stream."

At this stage, the minerals-in turkey waste, they come mostly from bones-settle out and are shunted to storage tanks. Rich in calcium and magnesium, the dried brown powder "is a perfect balanced fertilizer," Appel says.

The remaining concentrated organic soup gushes into a second-stage reactor similar to the coke ovens used to refine oil into gasoline. "This technology is as old as the hills," says Appel, grinning broadly. The reactor heats the soup to about 900 degrees Fahrenheit to further break apart long molecular chains. Next, in vertical distillation columns, hot vapor flows up, condenses, and flows out from different levels: gases from the top of the column, light oils from the upper middle, heavier oils from the middle, water from the lower middle, and powdered carbon-used to manufacture tires, filters, and printer toners-from the bottom. "Gas is expensive to transport, so we use it on-site in the plant to heat the process," Appel says. The oil, minerals, and carbon are sold to the highest bidders.

Depending on the feedstock and the cooking and coking times, the process can be tweaked to make other specialty chemicals that may be even more profitable than oil. Turkey offal, for example, can be used to produce fatty acids for soap, tires, paints, and lubricants. Polyvinyl chloride, or PVC-the stuff of house siding, wallpapers, and plastic pipes-yields hydrochloric acid, a relatively benign and industrially valuable chemical used to make cleaners and solvents. "That's what's so great about making water a friend," says Appel. "The hydrogen in water combines with the chlorine in PVC to make it safe. If you burn PVC [in a municipal-waste incinerator], you get dioxin-very toxic."

The technicians here have spent three years feeding different kinds of waste into their machinery to formulate recipes. In a little trailer next to the plant, Appel picks up a handful of one-gallon plastic bags sent by a potential customer in Japan. The first is full of ground-up appliances, each piece no larger than a pea. "Put a computer and a refrigerator into a grinder, and that's what you get," he says, shaking the bag. "It's PVC, wood, fiberglass, metal, just a mess of different things. This process handles mixed waste beautifully." Next to the ground-up appliances is a plastic bucket of municipal sewage. Appel pops the lid and instantly regrets it. "Whew," he says. "That is nasty."

Experimentation revealed that different waste streams require different cooking and coking times and yield different finished products. "It's a two-step process, and you do more in step one or step two depending on what you are processing," Terry Adams says. "With the turkey guts, you do the lion's share in the first stage. With mixed plastics, most of the breakdown happens in the second stage." The oil-to-mineral ratios vary too. Plastic bottles, for example, yield copious amounts of oil, while tires yield more minerals and other solids. So far, says Adams, "nothing hazardous comes out from any feedstock we try."

"The only thing this process can't handle is nuclear waste," Appel says. "If it contains carbon, we can do it."

This Philadelphia pilot plant can handle only seven tons of waste a day, but 1,054 miles to the west, in Carthage, Missouri, about 100 yards from one of ConAgra Foods' massive Butterball Turkey plants, sits the company's first commercial-scale thermal depolymerization plant. The $20 million facility, scheduled to go online any day, is expected to digest more than 200 tons of turkey-processing waste every 24 hours.

The north side of Carthage smells like Thanksgiving all the time. At the Butterball plant, workers slaughter, pluck, parcook, and package 30,000 turkeys each workday, filling the air with the distinctive tang of boiling bird. A factory tour reveals the grisly realities of large-scale poultry processing. Inside, an endless chain of hanging carcasses clanks past knife-wielding laborers who slash away. Outside, a tanker truck idles, full to the top with fresh turkey blood. For many years, ConAgra Foods has trucked the plant's Waste -- feathers, organs, and other nonusable parts -- to a rendering facility where it was ground and dried to make animal feed, fertilizer, and other chemical products. But bovine spongiform encephalopathy, also known as mad cow disease, can spread among cattle from recycled feed, and although no similar disease has been found in poultry, regulators are becoming skittish about feeding animals to animals. In Europe the practice is illegal for all livestock. Since 1997, the United States has prohibited the feeding of most recycled animal waste to cattle. Ultimately, the specter of European-style mad-cow regulations may kick-start the acceptance of thermal depolymerization. "In Europe, there are mountains of bones piling up," says Alf Andreassen. "When recycling waste into feed stops in this country, it will change everything."

Because depolymerization takes apart materials at the molecular level, Appel says, it is "the perfect process for destroying pathogens." On a wet afternoon in Carthage, he smiles at the new Plant -- an artless assemblage of gray and dun-colored buildings -- as if it were his favorite child. "This plant will make 10 tons of gas per day, which will go back into the system to make heat to power the system," he says. "It will make 21,000 gallons of water, which will be clean enough to discharge into a municipal sewage system. Pathological vectors will be completely gone. It will make 11 tons of minerals and 600 barrels of oil, high-quality stuff, the same specs as a number two heating oil." He shakes his head almost as if he can't believe it. "It's amazing. The Environmental Protection Agency doesn't even consider us waste handlers. We are actually Manufacturers -- that's what our permit says. This process changes the whole industrial equation. Waste goes from a cost to a profit."

He watches as burly men in coveralls weld and grind the complex loops of piping. A group of 15 investors and corporate advisers, including Howard Buffett, son of billionaire investor Warren Buffett, stroll among the sparks and hissing torches, listening to a tour led by plant manager Don Sanders. A veteran of the refinery business, Sanders emphasizes that once the pressurized water is flashed off, "the process is similar to oil refining. The equipment, the procedures, the safety factors, the maintenance -- it's all proven technology."

And it will be profitable, promises Appel. "We've done so much testing in Philadelphia, we already know the costs," he says. "This is our first-out plant, and we estimate we'll make oil at $15 a barrel. In three to five years, we'll drop that to $10, the same as a medium-size oil exploration and production company. And it will get cheaper from there."

"We've got a lot of confidence in this," Buffett says. "I represent ConAgra's investment. We wouldn't be doing this if we didn't anticipate success." Buffett isn't alone. Appel has lined up federal grant money to help build demonstration plants to process chicken offal and manure in Alabama and crop residuals and grease in Nevada. Also in the works are plants to process turkey waste and manure in Colorado and pork and cheese waste in Italy. He says the first generation of depolymerization centers will be up and running in 2005. By then it should be clear whether the technology is as miraculous as its backers claim.

This article was taken from:

Cover Letter

12, West 32 Street,
Marcaibo, Venezuela
(555)-556 7890.

Mr. John White,
Motorola Inc,
257, Park Avenue South,
Plantation, FL 12345-6789.

Dear Mr. White,
I was relieved to see your post on for an Electrical Engineering new grad work, In all my years of studies I've been familiarized with the duties your listing described: Designing and developing electrical circuit blocks for subscriber two-way radio products.

As you will see from my resume, I have completed my graduation in Electronics Engineering with mention in Telecommunications from Rafael Belloso Chacin University. Currently I've completed my internship in an inportant company of telecommunications in my country. I believe that my knowladge and enthusiasm will be the asset to your company.

If you like to meet me to talk about this position and the specific tasks you'll be assigning to the Electrical Engineerings you hire, please call 555-558-7243 to arrange a time that fits your calendar. I look forward to hearing from you and thank you ahead of time for your attention to my cover letter and resume.

Miguel Fernandez.

Second Life a new and different world!

Hi there this Lunatic Blaylock my second life avatar. He is not a dragon or a vampire, but I'm just a novice in this world. This communication tool looks very interesting and fun, I will try to meet people of another cultures and practice my english with them.

lunes, 2 de noviembre de 2009

Climate Change a Real Problem!

Every day we see in some TV programs, or hear in the street phrases like global warming, climate change, recycling. Climate change is a real problem, is not an idea or a possibility for the future, it's happening right now and we must to do everything that we can to stop it now!

Climate change has long-since ceased to be a scientific curiosity, and is no longerjust one of many environmental and regulatory concerns. As the United Nations Secretary General has said, it is the major, overriding environmental issue of our time, and the single greatest challenge facing environmental regulators. It is a growing crisis with economic, health and safety, food production, security, and other dimensions.

Shifting weather patterns, for example, threaten food production through increased unpredictability of precipitation, rising sea levels contaminate coastal freshwater reserves and increase the risk of catastrophic flooding, and a warming atmosphere aids the pole-ward spread of pests and diseases once limited to the tropics.

The news to date is bad and getting worse. Ice-loss from glaciers and ice sheets has continued, leading, for example, to the second straight year with an ice-free passage through Canada’s Arctic islands, and accelerating rates of ice-loss from ice sheets in Greenland and Antarctica. Combined with thermal expansion—warm water occupies more volume than cold—the melting of ice sheets and glaciers around the world is contributing to rates and an ultimate extent of sea-level rise that could far outstrip those anticipated in the most recent global scientific assessment.

There is alarming evidence that important tipping points, leading to irreversible changes in major ecosystems and the planetary climate system, may already have been reached or passed. Ecosystems as diverse as the Amazon rainforest and the Arctic tundra, for example, may be approaching thresholds of dramatic change through warming and drying. Mountain glaciers are in alarming retreat and the downstream effects of reduced water supply in the driest months will have repercussions that transcend generations. Climate feedback systems and environmental cumulative effects are building across Earth systems demonstrating behaviours we cannot anticipate.

The potential for runaway greenhouse warming is real and has never been more present. The most dangerous climate changes may still be avoided if we transform our hydrocarbon based energy systems and if we initiate rational and adequately financed adaptation programmes to forestall disasters and migrations at unprecedented scales. The tools are available, but they must be applied immediately and aggressively.

Easy Things You Can Do To Help Our Climate:

1. TIP: Travel light. Walk or bike instead of driving a car. Cars and trucks run on fossil fuels, which release carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. In the United States, automobiles produce over 20 percent of total carbon emissions. Walk or bike and you?ll save one pound of carbon for every mile you travel.

2. TIP: Teleconference instead of flying. For office meetings, if you can telephone or videoconference, you will save time, money, and carbon emissions. Airplanes pump carbon emissions high into the atmosphere, producing 12 percent of transportation sector emissions.

3. TIP: See the light. Use compact fluorescent light bulbs. These energy-efficient bulbs help fight climate change because they reduce the amount of fossil fuels that utilities burn. You will save 100 pounds of carbon for each incandescent bulb that you replace with a compact fluorescent, over the life of the bulb.

4. TIP: Recycle and use recycled products. Products made from recycled paper, glass, metal and plastic reduce carbon emissions because they use less energy to manufacture than products made from completely new materials. For instance, you?ll save two pounds of carbon for every 20 glass bottles that you recycle. Recycling paper also saves trees and lets them continue to reduce climate change naturally as they remain in the forest, where they remove carbon from the atmosphere.

5. TIP: Inflate your tires. If you own a car, it will get better gas mileage when the tires are fully inflated, so it will burn less gas and emit less carbon. Check your automobile monthly to ensure that the tires are fully inflated. Follow this tip and save 300 pounds of carbon dioxide for every 10,000 miles you drive.

6. TIP: Plant native trees. Trees absorb carbon dioxide from the air and use it as their energy source, producing oxygen for us to breathe. A tree in the temperate zone found between the tropics and the polar circles can remove and store 700 to 7,000 pounds of carbon over its lifetime. A tree that shades a house can reduce the energy required to run the air conditioner and save an additional 200 to 2,000 pounds of carbon over its lifetime.

7. TIP: Turn down the heat. Heating and air conditioning draw more than half of the energy that a home uses in the United States. Turn down the heat or air conditioning when you leave the house or go to bed. You can easily install a programmable thermostat that can save up money and carbon.

8. TIP: Buy renewable energy. Electricity generation produces 40 percent of carbon emissions from the United States. A growing number of utilities generate electricity from renewable energy sources with solar panels, windmills and other technologies. If your utility offers renewable energy, buy it. If not, send them a message asking for clean energy.}

9. TIP: Act globally, eat locally. If you shop at a supermarket, the food you buy may travel in a plane from the other side of the world, burning fossil fuels the entire trip. Shop at a local farmers markets and you will find fresh and healthy food, and help save our climate.

lunes, 5 de octubre de 2009

Working for Cisco, The Job of my dreams!

Requisition #: R845709 Location: UNITED STATES.CALIFORNIA.SAN JOSE
Job Title: Senior Board Design Engineer with Video & Audio Region: US & Canada
Area of Interest: Engineering - Hardware Level of Experience: Experienced - Non Manager
Job Description: Senior Board Design Engineer with Video & Audio

We have a current opening for a Senior Hardware Design Engineer with Video & Audio
to work in the TelePresence System Business Unit (TSBU) of our Emerging Technologies Group - ETG.

TelePresence is a virtual presence experience that uses advanced visual, audio, and interactive technologies to create an in person experience at a virtual conference table. TelePresence is one of the more recent examples of how Cisco is changing the way we work, live, play, and learn.

-Interface with product marketing on developing new product proposals.
-Develop system-level solutions for new product proposals. Work with software teams in execution of these products.
-Work with quality engineering group to screen critical field failures and perform detailed failure analysis of such failures.
-Perform root cause failure analysis of complex systems, PCB level subsystems. Perform fault isolation for system audio and video components.
-Establishment of specifications and procedures for Electrical Design Verification Testing.
-Execution of system measurement tests and EDVT tests. Root cause analysis of issues and problems identified in test processes.

**Must have strong Video and Audio Related Board Design Experience.**
-Requires BSEE/CS combined with 7 years of related experience in an engineering development and sustaining environment.
-Expertise at board level design, schematic capture and printed circuit design. Expertise at design and debug for EMC, ESD, signal integrity, power decoupling issues.
-Strong knowledge of hardware quality metrics.
-Experience with designing and debugging products for worldwide compliance requirements.
-Strong written and verbal communication skills.
-Strong planning and organizational capabilities.
-Able to plan and execute tasks with minimal supervision.
-Team-player, can-do attitude, will work well in a group environment while still being able to contribute on an individual basis and you will find that you'll have lots of fun and thrive in this environment if you enjoy being challenged, learning new ideas, and push yourself to achieve aggressive technology goals.

domingo, 4 de octubre de 2009

I found a job!

I chose this work because it is very related with my career, and it does'nt require any experience!

Job Category RF Engineering , Hardware Engineering , Electrical Engineering
Position Type
New Grad
Relocation Provided
Education Required
Bachelors / Degree
Experience Required
0 - 1
Basic Qualifications
Bachelor's degree
Must have 0-2 years experience or coursework in electrica electronic or hardware engineering
Department Description Subscriber Electrical Hardware Development for Public Safety Products

Scope of Responsibilities/Expectations
- Design and develop electrical circuit blocks for subscriber two-way radio products and perform testing to certify the design meets system, product and quality specifications.

-Support on site and off site manufacturing facilities requiring 10% travel (domestic and international).

Specific Knowledge/Skills
Preferred Skills/Experience

This position is an entry level position and no experience is necessary

-BS (MS preferred) in Electrical Engineering, Computer Engineering, or Electrical and Computer Engineering.

-Knowledge of RF/Microwave electronics design, Communication system requirements, Electromagnetic theory and principles.

-Experience with CAD tools for schematic capture/entry and PCB layout.

-Basic knowledge of automation software use and programming.

-Experience in RF, Analog/Digital Design, Design for Testability Analysis, Digital System Design, Spice Circuit simulation, MATLAB, Circuit Design.

-Knowledge of receiver system design, frequency generation unit design and power amplifier design.

-Excellent communication and interpersonal skills.

-Ability to work successfully within a diverse and dynamic team environment.

-Applying candidates should include grade point average in resume.

Claude Shannon, The father of the Telecommunications!

Shannon, Claude Elwood (1916-2001)

American mathematician and father of information theory Eric Weisstein's World of Math. Claude Elwood Shannon was born in Gaylord, Michigan on April 30, 1916 to Claude Elwood and Mabel Wolf Shannon. Shannon's father Claude, was a judge in Gaylord, a small town with a population of about three thousand, and his mother Mabel was the principal of the local high school. Although he didn't work in the field of mathematics, Shannon proved to be mathematically precocious. Although there was not much scientific influence from Shannon's father, he received scientific encouragement from his grandfather, who was an inventor and a farmer whose inventions included the washing machine and farming machinery.

From an early age, Shannon showed an affinity for both engineering and mathematics, and graduated from Michigan University with degrees in both disciplines. For his advanced degrees, he chose to attend the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. At the time, MIT was one of a number of prestigious institutions conducting research that would eventually formulate the basis for what is now known as the information sciences. Its faculty included mathematician Norbert Wiener, who would later coin the term cybernetics to describe the work in information theories that he, Shannon, and other leading American mathematicians were conducting. It also included Vannevar Bush, MIT's dean of engineering, who in the early 1930s had built an analog computer called the Differential Analyzer. The Differential Analyzer was developed to calculate complex equations that tabulators and calculators of the day were unable to address. It was a mechanical computer, using a series of gears and shafts to engage cogs until the equation was solved. Once it completed its cycle, the answer to the equation was obtained by measuring the changes in position of its various machine parts. Its only electrical parts were the motors used to drive the gears. With its crude rods, gears and axles, the analyzer looked like a child's erector set. Setting it up to work one equation could take two to three days; solving the same equation could take equally as long, if not longer. In order to work a new problem, the entire machine, which took up several hundred feet of floor space, had to be torn apart and reset to a new mechanical configuration.

While at MIT, Shannon studied with both Wiener and Bush. Noted as a 'tinkerer,' he was ideally suited to working on the Differential Analyzer, and would set it up to run equations for other scientists. At Bush's suggestion, Shannon also studied the operation of the analyzer's relay circuits for his master's thesis. This analysis formed the basis for Shannon's influential 1938 paper "A Symbolic Analysis of Relay and Switching Circuits," in which he put forth his developing theories on the relationship of symbolic logic to relay circuits. This paper, and the theories it contained, would have a seminal impact on the development of information processing machines and systems in the years to come.

Shannon is known as the father of information theory. He combined mathematical theories with engineering principles to set the stage for the development of the digital computer and the modern digital communication revolution. His seminal 1948 paper opened up a whole new world and fundamentally changed the way in which the communication of information is viewed.

Shannon graduated from MIT in 1940 with both a master's degree and doctorate in mathematics. After graduation, he spent a year as a National Research Fellow at the Institute for Advanced Study at Princeton University, where he worked with mathematician and physicist Hermann Weyl. In 1941, Shannon joined the Bell Telephone Laboratories, where he became a member of a group of scientists charged with the tasks of developing more efficient information transmitting methods and improving the reliability of long-distance telephone and telegraph lines.

One of the most important feature of Shannon's theory was the concept of information entropy, Eric Weisstein's World of Math which he demonstrated to be equivalent to a shortage in the information content in a message. According to physics' second law of thermodynamics, Eric Weisstein's World of Physics entropy Eric Weisstein's World of Physics is the degree of randomness in any system always increased. Thus, many sentences can be significantly shortened without losing their meaning. Shannon proved that in a noisy conversation, signal could always be send without distortion. If the message is encoded in such a way that it is self-checking, signals will be received with the same accuracy as if there were no interference on the line. A language, for example, has a built in error-correcting code. Therefore, a noisy party conversation is only partly clear because half the language is redundant. Shannon's methods were soon seen to have applications not only to computer design but to virtually every subject in which language was important such as linguistics, psychology, cryptography, and phonetics.

Shannon also showed that if enough extra bits were added to a message to help correct for errors, it could tunnel through the noisiest channel, arriving unscathed at the end. This insight has been developed over the decades into sophisticated error-correcting codes that ensure the integrity of the data on which society interacts. While working at the Bell Labs, Shannon and Hamming they developed the concept of the error-correcting code. Eric Weisstein's World of Math

Shannon's paper provided a glimpse into the future of information processing. While studying the relay switches on the Differential Equalizer as they went about formulating an equation, Shannon noted that the switches were always either open or closed, or on and off. This led him to think about a mathematical way to describe the open and closed states, and he recalled the logical theories of mathematician George Boole, who in the middle 1800s advanced what he called the logic of thought, in which all equations were reduced to a binary system consisting of zeros and ones.

Boole's theory, which formulated the basis for Boolean algebra, Eric Weisstein's World of Math stated that a statement of logic carried a one if true and a zero if false. Shannon theorized that a switch in the on position would equate to a Boolean one. In the off position, it was a zero. By reducing information to a series of ones and zeros, Shannon wrote, information could be processed by using on-off switches. He also suggested that these switches could be connected in such a way to allow them to perform more complex equations that would go beyond simple 'yes' and 'no' statements to 'and', 'or' or 'not' operations. Understanding, before almost anyone, the power that springs from encoding information in a simple language of 1s and 0s, Shannon as a young man wrote two papers that remain monuments in the fields of computer science and information theory.

Shannon believed that information was no different than any other quantity and therefore could be manipulated by a machine. He applied his earlier research to the problem at hand, again using Boolean logic to develop a model that reduced information to its most simple form--a binary system of yes/no choices, which could be presented by a 1/0 binary code. By applying set codes to information as it was transmitted, the noise it picked up during transmission could be minimized, thereby improving the quality of information transmission.

In the late 1940s, Shannon's research was presented in The Mathematical Theory of Communications, which he co-authored with mathematician Warren Weaver. It was in this work that Shannon first introduced the word 'bit,' comprised of the first two and the last letter of 'binary digit' and coined by his colleague John W. Tukey, to describe the yes-no decision that lay at the core of his theories.

Shannon's most important scientific contribution was his work on communication. In 1941 he began a serious study of communication problems, partly motivated by the demands of the war effort. This research resulted in the classic paper entitled "A mathematical theory of communication" in 1948. This pioneering paper begins by observing that 'the fundamental problem of communication is that of reproducing at one point exactly or approximately a message selected at another point. The results were so breathtakingly original, that it took some time for the mathematical and engineering community to realize their significance. A brand new science had been created in the form of Information theory, with the publication of that single paper, and the frame work and terminology he established remains standard even today.

In the 1950s, Shannon turned his efforts to developing what was then called "intelligent machines"--mechanisms that emulated the operations of the human mind to solve problems. Of his inventions during that time, the best known was a maze-solving mouse called Theseus, which used magnetic relays to learn how to maneuver through a metal maze.

During a visit to the United States,during the World war II, Alan Turing, a leading British mathematician spent a few months with Shannon working with Shannon. Both scientists were interested in the possibility of building a machine that could imitate the human brain. They worked together to build an encrypted voice phone that would allow Roosevelt to have a secure transatlantic conversation with Churchill.

Shannon's information theories eventually saw application in a number of disciplines in which language is a factor, including linguistics, phonetics, psychology and cryptography, which was an early love of Shannon's. His theories also became a cornerstone of the developing field of artificial intelligence, and in 1956 he was instrumental in convening a conference at Dartmouth College that was the first major effort in organizing artificial intelligence research. He wrote a paper entitled "Programming a computer for playing chess" in 1950, and developed a chess playing computer. Many years later, in 1965, he met the world chess champion Pichail Botvinnik (also and electrical engineer), and played a match with him, but lost after 42 moves.

Shannon's interest did not stop with these. He was an expert juggler who was often seen juggling three balls while riding an unicycle. He was an accomplished clarinet player, and was even known to pen light verse.

"Shannon was the person who saw that the binary digit was the fundamental element in all of communication," said Robert G. Gallager, a professor of electrical engineering who worked with Shannon at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. "That was really his discovery, and from it the whole communications revolution has sprung." Marvin Minsky of M.I.T., who as a young theorist worked closely with Shannon, was struck by his enthusiasm and enterprise. "Whatever came up, he engaged it with joy, and he attacked it with some surprising resource--which might be some new kind of technical concept or a hammer and saw with some scraps of wood," Minsky said. "For him, the harder a problem might seem, the better the chance to find something new."

Shannon was the recipient of numerous honorary degrees and awards. Shannon's published and un published documents(a hundred and twenty seven of them), cover an unbelievably wide spectrum of areas. Many of them have been a priceless source of research ideas for others. One could say that there would be no internet without Shannon's theory of information; every modem, every compressed file, every error correcting code owes something to Shannon.

Shannon died at age 84 on February 27, 2001 in Medford, Mass., after a long fight with Alzheimer's disease. He was survived by his three children: Robert James, Andrew Moore, and Margarita Catherine, and by his wife Mary Elizabeth Moore, who he had married on March 27, 1949.

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